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Service Platforms Emerge as the Foundation for SOA

SCA, domain-specific languages and XML processing capabilities - the next generation

Enterprise software architectures are shifting from collections of applications that are designed around user interfaces to assemblies of reuseable services. The first step in the evolution toward service-based applications was the definition and publication of services encapsulating discrete business functions.

The second wave used services in point-to-point combinations using protocols aimed at system interoperability for communication. The next wave of SOA adoption will focus on enabling composite service definitions that combine domain-specific languages for process orchestration, XML transformations, message routing, and business rules.

In this article, we'll look at how SOA platforms are evolving to meet these requirements. Specifically, we'll examine three related themes:
1.  The nature and role of service platforms that are designed to host composite services and complex business processes;
2.  The changes in how applications are described and designed in the new SOA platforms;
3.  The importance of key standards in simplifying and commoditizing the integration of services and applications.

In particular, we'll look at a series of emerging industry standards that describe how to design composite services implemented using many different implementation languages and protocols. These standards are defined in the Service Component Architecture (SCA) framework.

Why Services?
Interest in architectures based on services is driven by three distinct yet complementary technical goals. These goals include the need to:
1.  Integrate software functions across the data center to provide a consistent and rationalized approach to dealing with enterprise integration scenarios. Data and business functionality is often bound up in silos that need to be bridged to create new business functions that use multiple back-end systems. While initial approaches to Enterprise Applications Integration (EAI) often included ad hoc designs and layers of proprietary infrastructure, this is changing: a model based on the service paradigm and open standards is becoming the norm.
2.  Expose software assets as stateless services based on open Internet standards. Traditional systems integration required a uniform substrate to connect endpoints. We have reached a point in the industry where virtually any software asset can be exposed as a SOAP-based Web Service and described in WSDL.
3.  Leverage discrete services to build new business processes bridging many systems together. The standard language for building business processes is BPEL. However, effectively building a composite service out of multiple existing systems often requires additional functionality, including business rules, declarative XML processing capabilities, and asynchronous business events. The key requirement for service platforms is to support the composition of multiple services using multiple technologies required to implement composite services.

These technical goals are mirrored by specific business benefits that can be traced directly to SOA adoption. The business benefits start with increased flexibility to leverage and maximize the value of an organization's IT assets. SOA also increases productivity by using standards and reducing the effort that is required to get services communicating with each other.

Lastly, the SOA approach is comprehensive: it's a model that can tie together many technologies and describe ways in which services are related to each other. All these factors lead to cost savings.

Figure 1 shows a fictional HR system architected in a Service Oriented Architecture fashion. This system provides an end-to-end solution for employee provisioning, including a front-end to capture employee details, BPEL processes to orchestrate the provisioning of the employee assets, and a human workflow to route and gather manager approvals through e-mail.

An HR representative enters the new employee details on the HR Web site. This results in the publication of a message containing these details on the enterprise service bus. The ESB then looks at the country of hire of this new employee and routes it to the appropriate BPEL process to take into account the fact that HR regulations and practical details such as office space greatly differ from one location to another.

The "Employee Creation" BPEL process involves various other systems. First, it creates a new entry in the HR database. Then, it invokes an external rules engine to find the level of approvals required for a new employee based on such criteria as grade and department.

The next step is to gather the appropriate approvals, and this task is orchestrated with a human workflow that will take care of e-mailing managers. Finally, once all approvals have been received, the BPEL process publishes an event on the bus to trigger various other provisioning processes: IT provides the employee with all required internal accounts such as e-mail, payroll sets up the employee in Oracle Financials, and facilities allocates office space.

The benefits of designing this employee provisioning in this greatly decoupled fashion are:
• Because there is a single core employee creation BPEL process per country, the task of designing this process is greatly simplified and takes into account vastly different local regulations. A single application or process that tries to overlay all these variations would result in extremely complex logic.
• Because there is one process per country, adding a new location is a much less risky task: there's no need to touch the running processes for the existing locations.
• Because the approval levels are externalized to the rules engine, HR representatives can easily update the rules as hiring guidelines evolve, without having to modify the core BPEL employee creation process - a task that would require developers and testers to be involved.

But these benefits come at the price of having to manage many different types of artifacts: BPEL processes, rules definitions, and ESB flows to name a few. In many cases, this means running many different kinds of middleware that are packaged, deployed, and administered separately. The cost of the flexibility in the design comes in the form of much greater management, administration, and governance. The new SOA platforms and standards are designed to eliminate these costs by providing one model for building and running composite services.
In the following sections we see how SCA provides a model that lets us combine these different technologies together into a single composite service definition - a key requirement for SOA solutions.

Service Component Architecture Until recently, the development of composite services was hampered by a reliance on proprietary models for building new services and business processes. The development and acceptance of BPEL as a standard for service orchestration was a major step forward for the industry. The Service Component Architecture (SCA) is the next step in that evolution. In fact, we believe that the SCA will be viewed in retrospect as the key enabling technology for the widespread, successful adoption of SOA.

The SCA is a family of specifications developed by a group of leading vendors and platform providers in the integration and applications spaces. In February 2007 an initial set of SCA 1. 0 specifications completed incubation and were published on The authors announced their intention to submit the specifications to OASIS' open standards process. In addition a new member section, the Open Composite Services Architecture (OpenCSA) Member Section, was created in OASIS to coordinate the several technical committees that will start work later this year to process these specifications.

More Stories By Greg Pavlik

Greg Pavlik is an architect at Oracle. In this role he works on a combination of technology strategy, product development, and standards. He is currently responsible for Oracle’s SOA and Web services offerings. Greg is also the author of Java Transaction Processing (Prentice Hall, 2004).

More Stories By Demed L'Her

Demed L'Her is a senior principal product manager at Oracle. His focus is on enterprise service buses, JMS and next-generation SOA platforms. He has been involved in messaging and integration projects worldwide for 10 years.

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